On May 17, 1954, the United States Supreme Court directly reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson case of 1896, ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas that “separate but equal” school facilities for black and white children was unconstitutional. November 25, 1955, the Interstate Commerce Commission banned racial segregation on interstate buses, trains and in terminal waiting rooms. On December 1, 1955, when black American seamstress Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama, she was arrested and fined. On the other side of the world, South Africa tried to enforce its controversial apartheid policies. November 10, 1959, the UN General Assembly responded to these momentous events by condemning racial discrimination around the world.
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